Jumat, 22 Juni 2012

Rear Facing Car Seat vs Forward Facing Car Seat, kapan menggunakan, crash test disertai Video

Dalam kesempatan ini newbie mencoba sharing pengetahuan mengenai Rear Facing Car Seat vs Forward Facing Car Seat. Karena newbie juga baru tau kalau Anak-anak yang masih kecil (di bawah 2 tahun)  mempunyai struktur tulang dan otot leher (spinal cord) yang rentan sehingga penggunaan Forward Facing Car Seat untuk anak-anak tersebut masih berpotensi kepada kecelakaan yang serius, kelumpuhan bahkan bisa berujung kematian. Maksud saya bukan Forward Facing Car Seat berbahaya untuk anak di bawah usia 2 tahun karena tanpa Car Seat justru lebih berbahaya lagi, melainkan maksud saya adalah penggunaan Rear Facing Car Seat untuk anak di bawah usia 2 tahun lebih aman dibanding Forward Facing Car Seat.

Anak-anak yang ikut serta di dalam mobil memerlukan proteksi juga seperti halnya orang dewasa. Pada mobil umumnya sudah terdapat Seat Belt agar penumpang / pengemudi mobil tidak terhempas dari tempat duduk apabila terjadi benturan / tabrakan. Sejak ditemukan seat belt dari survey (silahkan googling) terjadi penurunan akibat fatal dari kecelakaan. Permasalahan terjadi untuk anak-anak karena seat belt ini diperuntukkan bagi orang dewasa, meskipun beberapa seat belt dilengkapi height adjuster tapi tetap terlalu tinggi buat anak-anak. Mengatasi keterbatasan ini dipakailah tambahan tempat duduk khusus anak-anak atau secara general kita sebut Car Seat. 

Car Seat sendiri terdiri dari beberapa macam :
  • Infant Car Seat and Carriers
  • Convertible Car Seat
  • Combination Car Seat
  • Booster Car Seat
  • Seat Booster
Sedangkan berdasarkan posisi duduk anak terhadap mobil, dibedakan menjadi dua :

  • Rear Facing : Anak duduk menghadap ke belakang
  • Forward Facing : Anak duduk menghadap ke depan


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video 1 - Simulasi crash test Rear Facing Car Seat vs Forward Facing Car Seat

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video 2 - Simulasi Anak 6 tahun nabrak kecepatan 56 km/jam dengan dan tanpa car seat booster




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video 3 - Penjelasan disertai simulasi Rear Facing Car Seat vs Forward Facing Car Seat

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video 4 - Front vs Rear Facing Car Seat dan True Story Crash Front Facing Car Seat 

Adalah penting untuk memperhatikan aspek keselamatan anak-anak karena anak-anak lebih rentan terhadap injury dibanding orang dewasa, sehingga penggunaan Car Seat menjadi penting. Tetapi penggunaan Car Seat yang tepat juga tidak kalah penting agar tidak terjadi injury yang fatal (silahkan lihat true story di video no 4).

Untuk anak-anak di bawah 2 tahun disarankan untuk menggunakan Rear Facing Car Seat. 2 Tahun di sini sebenarnya adalah angka minimal, disarankan untuk selama mungkin menggunakan Rear Facing Car Seat untuk proteksi yang paling maksimal diantara pilihan Car Seat, tentu saja selama berat dan tinggi anak tersebut memungkinkan untuk didudukan di Car Seat tersebut.

Faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap pemilihan Car Seat adalah tinggi dan berat anak, mana yang melampaui dahulu maka membuat suatu Car Seat tidak dapat dipakai lagi untuk anak tersebut. Seringkali malah faktor tinggi anak yang lebih dahulu melampaui dibandingkan dengan beratnya.

Untuk infant (bayi) jelas pilihan terbatas pada Rear Facing Car Seat, jangan sekali-kali meletakkan pada Forward Facing Car Seat (bahkan dipangku pun lebih bahaya lagi). Terdapat 2 pilihan yaitu Infant Car Seat (0 - 13 kg; tinggi up to 80 cm - kira-kira dipakai sampai sekitar 1 tahun ) atau Convertible (0- 18 kg, kira-kira sampai 2 tahun). Jangan menggunakan Toddler (9-18 kg, 1 - 2 tahun) untuk infant karena terlalu besar. Convertible sendiri dapat diletakkan secara Rear Facing maupun Forward Facing. Tentu saja bila ditinjau dari faktor lamanya pemakaian maka Convertible menjadi pilihan yang penggunaanya lebih panjang, tetapi faktor harga menjadi kendala. Sedangkan pilihan Infant Car Seat menawarkan harga yang lebih terjangkau (tetap tergantung merk), kepraktisan karena biasanya disertai Carrier sehingga bayi bisa dibawa-bawa keluar masuk mobil tanpa mengganggu si bayi apabila sedang tidur. Beberapa Infant Car Seat biasanya bisa digunakan sebagai ayunan bayi apabila dipakai di luar mobil. Infant Car Seat juga ada yang satu set dengan Baby Stroller sehingga apabila jalan-jalan ke mall tinggal memindahkan Car Seat dan di"klik" ke Stroller, demikian juga setelah kembali ke mobil tinggal dipindahkan saja....sehingga menambah unsur kepraktisan.

Seperti penjelasan di video, sebaiknya meletakkan anak-anak dalam posisi Rear Facing selama mungkin, setelah itu baru menggunakan Forward Facing, bahkan Seat Booster bisa digunakan sampai anak mencapai usia 8 - 12 tahun, baru setelah itu menggunakan Seat Belt dari mobil.

Do Our Best to our beloved Children.

Berikut beberapa penjelasan berdasarkan site www.car-safety.org

Ten Basic Rules:

  1. Kids 12 and under should ALWAYS ride in the back seat. This cuts their risk of death by 36%.
  2. Kids should be in a carseat or booster until they can be seated properly in a seatbelt.  For most kids, this is around 8-12 years old or 4' 9" tall, but proper seatbelt fit is the most important factor.
  3. Never place a rear-facing carseat in the front seat when there is an active frontal airbag.
  4. Keep your baby rear-facing as long as possible.  That can mean up to 35 or 40 pounds in most current convertible seats, unless they outgrow it by height first.
  5. All current car seats pass government safety standards.   Select the one that best fits your child, your vehicle and your budget.  Some models do have different features; select one that has the features that will allow you to use it correctly EVERY trip.
  6. Always read the owners manuals for your vehicle and carseat thoroughly.  They often contain specific information about carseat installation that may not be obvious.  Some models may vary from what you would expect.
  7. Make sure that the harness fits snugly on your child, the carseat fits snugly in your vehicle, and that your vehicle seatbelts are locked properly.
  8. When you buy a carseat, make sure you have a good return policy in case it doesn't fit or in case you find you don't like it.  Have your seat inspected by a certified technician for free at a checkup event or fitting station.
  9. Please be wary of used carseats, especially those over six years old, those with an unknown history that may have been in a crash, those that show any form of cracks or damage, and those with missing labels, model number, manufacturing date, instructions or parts.
  10. Please give driving your complete, unimpaired attention and wear your own seatbelt all the time.  These two simple steps are among these easiest ways you can protect yourself and your passengers from injury or death.




Infant Carseats and Carriers:

  1. Use rear-facing up to 22-35 pounds, depending on the model.
  2. A 5-point harness is preferred. Keep chest clip at armpit level and not on the neck or tummy.
  3. Harness strap slots should be at or below the shoulders.
  4. A front adjuster to tighten the harness makes it easy to use.
  5. Newborns and infants should have a 45 degree maximum recline.
  6. Built-in angle indicators and adjusters may help get the correct recline.
  7. Manufacturers have differing instructions on where handle should be while traveling. Read the instruction manual to learn if it should be up or down in the vehicle.
  8. A rear-facing tether or impact foam found on some models may improve safety.
  9. Infant seats may fit newborns better than convertible models.
  10. Some models include a complete stroller and base system, while others may include just the convenient base that installs in the car.




Convertible Carseats:

  1. Rear-Facing is SAFEST!
  2. Select a model with a 35 or 40 pound rear-facing weight limit and keep your child rear-facing as long as possible.
  3. Your child should be turned front-facing at the 35 or 40 pound rear-facing limit, or if the top of their head is within an inch of the top of the shell.
  4. Models with a 5-point harness and front harness adjuster are preferred.
  5. Keep the harness straps at or below the shoulders while rear-facing.
  6. Keep the harness straps at or above the shoulders while front-facing.
  7. Some older models require the use of TOP slots while front-facing (check your manual).
  8. Keep chest clip at armpit level, not on the neck or tummy.
  9. Make sure you use the correct seat belt path or LATCH hooks intended for front-facing or rear-facing.
  10. A 45 degree maximum recline is needed for newborns and young infants while rear-facing.  Older babies with good head support can have less recline while rear-facing.
  11. Upright with no recline is best for front-facing.
  12. Some models feature tethers that can also be used rear-facing and impact foam for added safety.  Some also have built-in locking clips for convenience.



Combination Carseats:

  1. Use the internal harness front-facing to the maximum limits indicated in the manual!
  2. Models with a 5-point harness and front harness adjuster are preferred.
  3. Keep chest clip at armpit level, not on the neck or tummy.
  4. When the child reaches the weight limit of the harness or his or her shoulders are above the top harness slots, remove the harness and use the seat as a booster with a lap AND shoulder belt.
  5. As a booster, the lap belt should ride high on the thighs or low on the hips.
  6. As a booster, the shoulder belt should cross the center of the shoulder and chest.
  7. Use the built-in shoulder belt guide if the shoulder belt doesn't fit correctly.
  8. The shoulder belt guide on some models can "catch" the seatbelt and leave slack.  Please make sure the belt is tight at all times.
  9. Look for high, top harness slots to accommodate taller children up to 40 pounds (more for many models) in the harness.



Booster Carseats:

  1. Best used after 40 pounds with a only lap AND shoulder belt.
  2. Use until the manufacturer's weight limit, or until your child can wear a seatbelt properly, usually around 8-12 years old or 4' 9" tall.
  3. Shoulder belt should cross the center of the shoulder and chest, not on the neck.
  4. Lap belt should be high on the thighs or low on the hips, not on the tummy.
  5. Use a high back model if your vehicle has low seat backs with no head rests. Some models may offer increased side impact protection.
  6. A backless model is fine if your vehicle has headrests, or if there is plenty of growing room from the tops of your child's ears up to the top of the seat back.
  7. Many models have open loop shoulder belt guides that don't catch like some guides on combination seats.
  8. Many have adjustable head supports and extra padding for added comfort, compared to combination seats.



Front-Facing and Specialty Models:

  1. Some models are suitable for older kids in vehicles that don't have shoulder belts, or for big kids that are still too immature to ride properly in a seatbelt or booster.  Others are designed for children with special needs. If you have a lap-only belt seating position and cannot have a shoulder belt retrofitted, one of these models may work for you.
  2. The Britax Marathon 70, Boulevard 70, Boulevard 70 CS and Advocate 70 CS are convertible seats that are rated to 70 pounds front-facing. Top shoulder height setting is around 17.
  3. The Britax Frontier 85™ goes to 85 pounds with an internal 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is about 20". The seat then converts to an adjustable high-back booster for children 40 lbs. to over 100 lbs.
  4. The Britax Regent (discontinued) goes to 80 pounds with an internal 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is about 19".
  5. The Cosco/Safety 1st Apex goes to 65 pounds with an internal 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is about 17" but the vehicle must provide adequate head restraint.
  6. The Diono Radian™ comes in three models; a 65 pound version, and two 80 pound versions, all with an internal 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is 17"+. The seat is relatively narrow and can also be used rear-facing.
  7. The Evenflo Titan DLX goes to 35 pounds rear-racing and to 50 pounds front-facing with a five point harness. 
  8. The Evenflo Triumph Advance 65 goes to 40 pounds rear-racing and to 65 pounds front-facing with a five point harness. Shoulder strap height is easily adjusted from the front of the seat and the harness is tightened by turning an adjustment knob on the side of the seat.
  9. The Graco Nautilus is a front-facing only seat with an internal harness to 65 pounds. The seat then converts to an adjustable high-back booster from 30 to 100 pounds.
  10. The Graco My Ride is a convertible car seat with a 40-pound rear-facing weight limit and a 65-pound front-facing weight limit. The top harness height is about 17".
  11. E-Z-On Products makes harnesses for vehicles with lap belts and children with special needs, including the Kid-Y Harness and similar Kid-Y Harness plus Ride Ryte Booster. The vehicle must provide adequate head restraint.
  12. Safe Traffic Systems makes the RideSafer Travel Vest in a 60 and 80 pound version as an alternative to boosters and for vehicles with lap belts. Vehicle must provide adequate head restraint.
  13. The SafeGuard Child Seat (discontinued) goes to 65 pounds with an internal 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is about 19".
  14. The Safety 1st Go Hybrid Booster Car Seat goes to 65 pounds with a hybrid 5-point harness. Top shoulder height setting is over 17", depending on the vehicle. The vehicle must provide adequate head restraint.
  15. The Cosco Dreamride™ Car Bed and AngelGuard Infant Car Bed can be used for premature infants and babies with possible breathing problems or special needs
  16. Snugseat and Columbia Medical make models for children with special needs.
regards,
singachu


sumber : http://www.car-safety.org/basics.html
sumber : Youtube

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